Data cables provide the medium to make connections between devices in modern fixed telecommunications networks. Physically, data cables are transmission lines that carry information in the form of electromagnetic signals from one node in a network to another, where the information needs to be demodulated, stored, forwarded, retrieved, processed, and/or interpreted. An important challenge in the networked world is to figure out which data cables best solve the data transfer problems at hand.

The presentation examines three common data cable formats: Twisted-pair wires, optical fibres, and coaxial cables. We will examine the physical and information-carrying properties of each cable type, practical installation and use considerations, and the conditions under which application of a given cable type is most appropriate. A very basic understanding of telecommunications concepts such as bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and modulation is helpful, but not necessary, to follow the presentation.

The presentation the most important issues on copper and copper alloys for railway traction supply systems - conventional and high speed railway according to the UIC directives. The construction of overhead railway traction with various elements (e.g. trolley wires, catenary wires, equipment) made ​​from copper and copper alloys will be presented. Presentation will also include the selected EU normalizations of different products designed for railway traction and their mechanical and electrical properties requirements. Furthermore authors will present and discuss the most important exploitation problems of overhead railway traction. In addition selected industrial production technologies of different railway traction copper based elements, the laboratory results and its exploitation properties will be also discussed.

Transmission network operators are facing substantial and even contradictory challenges. A highly variable renewable energy supply and an increased focus on energy efficiency require a reinforcement of the grid, but the resistance against the construction of new lines has never been so high. The new generation of copper alloy conductors can be part of the solution.

These copper alloys offer outstanding mechanical properties and a high annealing temperature that makes possible to apply affordable and durable hydrophobic coatings. This unique combination makes the new copper conductors highly suitable for severe weather conditions (wind & cold) both in new lines and in refurbishment projects. Additionally, the high conductivity of copper offers a significant reduction of life cycle costs.

This webinar will present the main properties of the new copper alloy conductors and how they allow to respond to the transmission and distribution network new challenges. Also a concrete case study for a 70 km line will be presented, stressing the relevance of the cost of losses and minimizing the total cost of ownership.